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Saturday, October 21 2017 @ 04:59 am IST

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Labyrinthitis ossificans

OtologyThe human bony labyrinth is composed of endosteal, enchondral and perisoteal layers. The endosteal layer consists of bone

lined with a single layer of cells that have numerous gaps separating them. This layer is significantly thin. The enchondral layer is rather unique in that it reaches the adult size

by 23 weeks of gestatation and undergoes minimal remodelling after the age of 2. The periosteal layer is composed of lamellar bone and is capable of bone remodelling and repair.

Labyrinthitis ossificans is the pathologic new bone formation within the lumen of otic capsule. This condition is always associated with profound deafness and loss of

vestibular function. Cochlear ossification in this condition doesnot cross the endosteal layer or alter the architecture of the enchondral bone.

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Effects of sectioning chorda tympani nerve during middle ear surgery

OtologyThe chorda tympani nerve courses through the middle ear cavity. It is hence under risk during middle ear

surgical procedures. Initially studies have demonstrated that unilateral injury to this nerve just caused

transient taste disturbances in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Progressively the alternate pathways of

of taste take over and the sensation returns to normal. House and Rice in their study demonstrated

that sectioning of chorda tympani during middle ear surgical procedures caused earlier return of the

taste sensation when compared to that of a severely traumatized nerve during the surgical procedure.

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Castellani solution and its use in the management of myringitis granulosa

OtologyIntroduction:

Castellani solution (paint) is an old medication used in the treatment of granular myringitis. It was used in the

treatment of fungal infections of skin.

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How to do a perfect otoscopy

OtologyOtoscopy is a procedure by which the external auditory canal and the ear drum of a patient is examined.

The art of doing a perfect otoscopic examination lies in straightening the external auditory canal in order to

visualize the ear drum in toto.

The following equipments are used in this procedure:

1. Otoscope

2. Aural speculum if otoscope is not available

3. Otoendoscope

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Laryngeal mask airway

LaryngologyLaryngeal mask was developed in 1980's, and recently is being used extensively in emergency medicine.

It affords excellent ventilation without going through the normal intubation process and visualization of laryngeal inlet.

It should be considered as a supraglottic airway management device. It can be introduced even by an emergency technician with training during emergency situations.

Visualization of glottis is not essential for introduction of laryngeal mask airway. Laryngeal mask was first developed by a British Anesthesiologist

by name Archie Brain in 1980. Laryngeal mask was developed in 1980's, and recently is being used extensively in emergency medicine.

It affords excellent ventilation without going through the normal intubation process and visualization of laryngeal inlet. It should be considered as a

supraglottic airway management device. It can be introduced even by an emergency technician with training during emergency situations.

Visualization of glottis is not essential for introduction of laryngeal mask airway. Laryngeal mask was first developed by a British Anesthesiologist by name Archie Brain in 1980.

Brain considered laryngeal mask airway as a physical junction between artificial and anatomic airway.

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Taste disturbances following tonsillectomy

LaryngologyTonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedures these days. Even though it has its own set of complications, disturbance in taste following surgery should be considered rare. This article tries to dwell into the possible causes of taste disturbance following tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgery these days. It is a reasonable safe surgical procedure
of course with its own set of complications. Certain complications like taste disturbance following tonsillectomy
is very rare. Seiichi Tomofuji et all managed to study the incidence of taste disturbance following tonsillectomy.
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Prosper Meniere an apostle of humility

OtologyProsper Meniere in whose memory the classic Meniere's disease has been christened was an interesting personality.

A study of his life history and personality makes an interesting reading. Prosper Meniere described clearly the symptoms of Meniere's disease.

Even now the description of Meniere's of this disorder holds good. Very little has been added to the description of Meniere's disease.

Prosper Meniere described clearly the symptoms of Meniere's disease. Even now the description of Meniere's of this disorder holds good.

Very little has been added to the description of Meniere's disease. Prosper Meniere was born in Angers a French town in 1799. He underwent basic education at Lycee. Later he joined the

university of Angers. He completed his medical studies at the Hotel-Dieu in Paris which was one of the most prestigious hospitals of Europe those days.

He received gold medal for excellence in medicine in 1826. He received his doctorate in medicine in 1828.

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Can the presence of Biofilms be identified under routine H&E staining?

RhinologyCenters for disease control and prevention estimate that about 65% of human bacterial infectious processes involve biofilms.

Biofilm is a group of bacteria seen over surface epithelium like mucous membrane, enclosed within a matrix of extracellular

polysaccharide material. The presence of this biofilm has been implicated in the following chronic infections:

1. Chronic rhinosinusitis

2. Chronic bronchitis

3. Atrophic rhinitis

4. Lung infections following prolonged intubation

5. Urinary catheter related infections

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Minimally invasive surgery in the nasal valve area to treat nasal obstruction

RhinologyMink defined nasal valve area to be the narrowest portion of the whole of the nasal cavity. He characterized this area

anatomically as a two dimensional slit like opening lying between the caudal edge of the upper lateral cartilage and the

corresponding area of the nasal septum. Deformities involving this area cause troublesome nasal stuffiness and obstruction.

Surgical procedure involving this area is fraught with dangers of stenosis in this vital area and deformities involving the contour of the nose.

This article describes what could be considered to be a simple surgical procedure that could relieve obstruction in this area.

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Anosmia in elderly

RhinologyAnosmia in geriatric age group is really common. Statistically speaking about 15% of geriatric population are anosmic. Anosmia in geriatric

age group has disastrous consequences, including safety hazard. It affects the food preferences and nutritional status of the already compromised population.

The absolute odor sensitivity as well as sensitivity to suprathrehold odors decreases in aging population Introduction: Anosmia in geriatric age group is really common.

Statistically speaking about 15% of geriatric population are anosmic. Anosmia in geriatric age group has disastrous consequences, including safety hazard.

It affects the food preferences and nutritional status of the already compromised population. The absolute odor sensitivity as well as sensitivity to suprathrehold odors decreases in aging population.

Loss of smell sensation could be a component of degenerative disorders like Alzeimer's disease and Parkinson's disease which commonly affect elderly age group.