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Saturday, October 21 2017 @ 04:57 am IST

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Role of physiological saline in the management of patulous eustachean tube

OtologyIntroduction:

The pharyngeal end of eustachean tube is normally closed. It usually opens temporarily during swallowing and yawning during which time middle ear drainage and pressure equalisation takes place. Abnormalities involving this opening mechanism may lead to middle ear pathologies like otitis media with effusion.

Patulous eustachean tube is a difficult entity to treat. The phenomenon of autophony which is caused by this condition is a difficult entity to treat.

Patients have been driven to sucide because of this problem.

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Endoscopic assessment of eustachean tube function

OtologyIntroduction:

The eustachean tube connects the middle ear cavity with atmospheric air. It thus plays an important role in ventilating the middle

ear cavity, clearing the secretions from the middle ear cavity. It also plays a vital role in protecting the middle ear cavity from

the nasopharyneal secretions. Anatomically the proximal third of the eustachean tube is bony in nature and is lined by a thin

layer of respiratory epithelium. This portion of the tube is fixed in its dimensions and does not vary much.

The lateral 2/3 of this tube is cartilageanous. This portion of the eustachan tube is acted upon by

the peritubal muscles, hence its dimensions are variable.

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Pediatric Obesity Linked to Otitis Media With effusion

OtologyStudy published in April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery. links

childhood obesity to chronic otitis media with effusion. Studies have demonstrated that these

patients in addition to otitis media with effusion also had taste disturbances involving the anterior

third of the tongue. Sensation to sweet and salt were found to be diminished in these children.

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Labyrinthitis ossificans

OtologyThe human bony labyrinth is composed of endosteal, enchondral and perisoteal layers. The endosteal layer consists of bone

lined with a single layer of cells that have numerous gaps separating them. This layer is significantly thin. The enchondral layer is rather unique in that it reaches the adult size

by 23 weeks of gestatation and undergoes minimal remodelling after the age of 2. The periosteal layer is composed of lamellar bone and is capable of bone remodelling and repair.

Labyrinthitis ossificans is the pathologic new bone formation within the lumen of otic capsule. This condition is always associated with profound deafness and loss of

vestibular function. Cochlear ossification in this condition doesnot cross the endosteal layer or alter the architecture of the enchondral bone.

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Effects of sectioning chorda tympani nerve during middle ear surgery

OtologyThe chorda tympani nerve courses through the middle ear cavity. It is hence under risk during middle ear

surgical procedures. Initially studies have demonstrated that unilateral injury to this nerve just caused

transient taste disturbances in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Progressively the alternate pathways of

of taste take over and the sensation returns to normal. House and Rice in their study demonstrated

that sectioning of chorda tympani during middle ear surgical procedures caused earlier return of the

taste sensation when compared to that of a severely traumatized nerve during the surgical procedure.

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Castellani solution and its use in the management of myringitis granulosa

OtologyIntroduction:

Castellani solution (paint) is an old medication used in the treatment of granular myringitis. It was used in the

treatment of fungal infections of skin.

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How to do a perfect otoscopy

OtologyOtoscopy is a procedure by which the external auditory canal and the ear drum of a patient is examined.

The art of doing a perfect otoscopic examination lies in straightening the external auditory canal in order to

visualize the ear drum in toto.

The following equipments are used in this procedure:

1. Otoscope

2. Aural speculum if otoscope is not available

3. Otoendoscope

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Prosper Meniere an apostle of humility

OtologyProsper Meniere in whose memory the classic Meniere's disease has been christened was an interesting personality.

A study of his life history and personality makes an interesting reading. Prosper Meniere described clearly the symptoms of Meniere's disease.

Even now the description of Meniere's of this disorder holds good. Very little has been added to the description of Meniere's disease.

Prosper Meniere described clearly the symptoms of Meniere's disease. Even now the description of Meniere's of this disorder holds good.

Very little has been added to the description of Meniere's disease. Prosper Meniere was born in Angers a French town in 1799. He underwent basic education at Lycee. Later he joined the

university of Angers. He completed his medical studies at the Hotel-Dieu in Paris which was one of the most prestigious hospitals of Europe those days.

He received gold medal for excellence in medicine in 1826. He received his doctorate in medicine in 1828.

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Sonotubometry and its role in assessing the functional integrity of eustachean tube

OtologySonotubometry is based on the principle that sound when applied to the nasopharyngeal ostium of eustachean tube will be conducted through the

eustachean tube into the middle ear when it opens. This concept was first conceived durning the 19th century.

It has undergone lot of changes like introduction of better microphones. Politzer should be credited for the introduction of sonotubometry for analysis of eustachean tube function.

Introduction:

Sonotubometry is based on the principle that sound when applied to the nasopharyngeal ostium of eustachean tube will be conducted through

the eustachean tube into the middle ear when it opens. This concept was first conceived durning the 19th century. It has undergone lot of changes like introduction of better microphones.

Politzer should be credited for the introduction of sonotubometry for analysis of eustachean tube function.

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The smallest hearing aid manufactured so far "Siemens I mini"

OtologySiemens has developed the smallest hearing aid so far. It snugly fits into the external ear and is

not visible even to the discerning eye. Since this device fits into the ear canal snugly it needs

to be customized according to the individual requirements. It is also costly as it is labour intensive.